Generally, six searching sites around each tooth may show; Added, Gingival disease; Non-dental biofilm induced – there are six subtypes of periodontal disease such as; genetic/developmental disorder, specific infection, inflammatory and immune conditions, reactive process, neoplasm, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic, and traumatic lesions, or gingival pigmentation. In the primary, periodontal disease has common symptoms before treatment. This involves regular checkups and detailed cleanings every three months to prevent repopulation of periodontitis-causing microorganisms, and to closely monitor affected teeth so early treatment can be rendered if the disease recurs. There are 3 main types: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Your email address will not be published. [47][48], As dental plaque or biofilm accumulates on the teeth near and below the gums there is some dysbiosis of the normal oral microbiome. [24][25] Although no causal association was proven, there is an association between chronic periodontitis and erectile dysfunction,[26] inflammatory bowel disease,[27] heart disease,[28] and pancreatic cancer.[29]. Several conditions and diseases, including Down syndrome, diabetes, and other diseases that affect one's resistance to infection, also increase susceptibility to periodontitis. [62] Local application of statin may be useful.[63]. Classification according to sites – sites defines as the positions searching measurement can take around each tooth. Refer you to a periodontist. Calculus above and below the gum line must be removed completely by the dental hygienist or dentist to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. [36] New finger prick tests have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the US, and are being used in dental offices to identify and screen people for possible contributory causes of gum disease, such as diabetes. Left untreated, it damages the teeth and gums so much that the patient can lose their teeth. J Periodontol 2018;89 (Suppl 1): S159-S172. [61] A meta analysis of local tetracycline found improvement. [64] To avoid killing beneficial oral microbes, only small doses of doxycycline (20 mg) are used.[64]. In the secondary, or serious form, it defines as “Periodontitis”. Smoking is another factor that increases the occurrence of periodontitis, directly or indirectly,[37][38][39] and may interfere with or adversely affect its treatment. [49] As of 2017 it was not certain what species were most responsible for causing harm, but gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, spirochetes, and viruses have been suggested; in individual people it is sometimes clear that one or more species is driving the disease. The number and types of treatment will vary, depending on the extent of the gum disease. a prediction of the course or outcome of a disease or disorder. In Israeli population, individuals of Yemenite, North-African, South Asian, or Mediterranean origin have higher prevalence of periodontal disease than individuals from European descent. In the primary stage, the gum becomes swollen, red, and may bleed. [3] Recommended oral hygiene include daily brushing and flossing. Although many periodontal prognosis systems have been developed, most of the prognoses are based on tooth mortality (i.e., extractions).5–8 Assigning an accurate prognosis for each tooth be… The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand dental hygienists' perceived barriers and experiences during the process of diagnosing periodontal disease in clinical practice. [40][41][42] It is arguably the most important environmental risk factor for periodontitis. The seven categories are as follows: Moreover, terminology expressing both the extent and severity of periodontal diseases are appended to the terms above to denote the specific diagnosis of a particular person or group of people. Once successful periodontal treatment has been completed, with or without surgery, an ongoing regimen of "periodontal maintenance" is required. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (also known as palmoplantar keratoderma) are also risk factors for periodontitis. However, the risk increases exponentially as glycaemic control worsens. [71], The word "periodontitis" (Greek: περιοδοντίτις) comes from the Greek peri, "around", odous (GEN odontos), "tooth", and the suffix -itis, in medical terminology "inflammation". If left undisturbed, microbial plaque calcifies to form calculus, which is commonly called tartar. In the primary, periodontal disease has common symptoms before treatment. This includes twice-daily brushing with daily flossing. Usually, periodontal disease exists due to poor plaque control resulting from inappropriate brushing. Adults are the most affected. We will discuss the management of periodontal diseases. [1][5], Treatment involves good oral hygiene and regular professional teeth cleaning. Treatment is available in many procedures but dentists may recommend antibiotics and surgery in certain cases. 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PERIODONTITIS AS A MANIFESTATION OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES It can be divided into two categories: - periodontitis associated with hematologic disorders such as leukemia and acquired neutropenia. [3] Bad breath may also occur. TYPES OF PROGNOSIS